The RAC sector lies at the interface of two international environmental agreements—the Montreal Protocol (on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer) and the United Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC).
Thailand has agreed to phase out hydrochlorofluorocarbons or HCFCs virtually until 2030 (and completely by 2040). These substances are used mainly in the RAC sector as refrigerants and blowing agents. Meanwhile, high global warming potential (GWP) refrigerants such as hydrofluorocarbons or HFCs have become popular in use as substitutes and are now the fastest growing GHGs under the UNFCCC. According to the recently agreed Kigali Amendment to the Montreal Protocol, Thailand would freeze its HFC consumption in the year 2024 and reduce it by 80% until 2045 once the amendment is ratified.
Thailand submitted its first Intended Nationally Determined Contributions (INDCs) in 2015, where energy efficiency also plays a significant role to reach its target of reducing GHG emissions by 20% or 25% with additional international support by 2030. With approximately 80% of the GHG emissions in the RAC sector stemming from energy consumption, it is essential to align plans and measures made in the context of these two international agreements.